An author’s summary (abstract) of a research paper/work should depict the essence of the work and be understandable to the reader without reading the publication proper. An abstract shall briefly and accurately reflect contents of the paper, depicting the main facts and results.

The text of an abstract shall be compact and clear, free from odd words, be distinguished for the cogency of wording.

An abstract shall include the following asspects of the paper’s contents:
  • The work subject, theme, objective;
  • The work conduct method or methodology;
  • The work results/findings;
  • Application sphere of the results/implications;
  • Conclusions.

The work results should be depicted much accurately and clearly, presenting the main theoretical and experimental results, actual data, found interrelations and regularities. The new findings that negate the exiting theories, as well as the data, which, according to the author, are of practical significance should be underlined.

The phrases given in the paper’s title should not be repeated in the abstract’s text. It is desirable to avoid expletives (e.g., “the author of the report considers…”). An abstract should be free from the depiction of earlier published reports or universally known facts.

The abstract’s text should comply with the language of scientific and technical documentation; anid tracing and stick to the unified terminology throughout the text.

Abbreviations and shorthands, save the generally accepted ones, should be used in exceptional cases or shall be defined upon the first mentioning.

Physical quantity units should be given according to the international systems. Tables, formulas, drawings, figures, schemes, diagrams are used in an abstract only when necessary, when they reflect the main content of the document and allow for reducing the abstract’s volume.

The abstract’s text volume is determined according to the document’s content and complexity. 1000 characters or 100-300 words are deemed acceptable.

An abstract preparation procedure is defined by the Standard ISO 214:1976 Documentation – Abstracts for publications and documentation.